Magnetic Microchips Replaces Electronic Semiconductor

first_img Magnetic fields created using nanotechnology could make computers up to 500 times faster This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further This development evidently offers a potentially economical and simpler way of computing for the future, which could also be put to new and useful purposes. This research follows the team’s groundbreaking first step in 2002 at Durham, when they managed to create a basic computer operation or ‘logic gate’ using a magnetic microchip. Since 2002 the team has created a number of further ‘logic gates’ and created interconnecting structures using magnetic ‘nanowires ‘, which can now reproduce the logic functions of a conventional computer empowered by semiconductor electronics. Dr Del Atkinson of Durham University comments on this success are: “This new technology offers a number of advantages over conventional computers. Electronic microchips generate a lot of heat, which creates the need for fans in PC units, whereas these magnetic microchips do not generate this heat. . The magnetic microchips that have been created are also simpler and potentially cheaper to produce than the electronic chips. They are economical insofar as they use simple metals layers.This would also imply that the computers being economical would become still more disposable. “ This means that they could be used for cheap and therefore disposable simple computers in the future., “ Dr. Atkinson further commented: “These developments are important and exciting and while there is still some way to go, the potential is there to create a whole new technology based on magnetism rather than electricity.”This use of magnetism, rather than that of electricity has potential of being exploited further .The team is working in the rapidly growing field of nanotechnology, harnessing the magnetic properties of electrons, rather than their electrical charge on which conventional electronics is based. Nanotechnology involves working with materials at an extremely microscopic level. A nanometre is one thousand millionth of a metre – about the width of five atoms.This harnessing the capability of magnetic properties of electrons could mean a sea-change in the field of electronics.by Dr. Bikram Lamba, Copyright 2005 PhysOrg.com Dr. Bikram Lamba, an international management consultant, is Chairman & Managing Director of Tormacon Limited- a multi-disciplinary consultancy organization. He can be contacted at 905 848 4205. email: torconsult@rogers.com , www.torconsult.com center_img The combined efforts of researchers from Durham University, Imperial College, London and the University of Sheffield have fructified. Till now the basic computer is usually made by using semiconductor electronics. The researchers have gone ahead and have successfully created a computer by using magnetic microchips rather than semiconductor electronics. Citation: Magnetic Microchips Replaces Electronic Semiconductor (2005, September 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2005-09-magnetic-microchips-electronic-semiconductor.htmllast_img read more

Researchers claim a third of dinosaurs might never have existed

first_img Explore further Jack Horner, of Montana State University, said in a new documentary to be aired on the National Geographic channel, that one example was the Nanotyrannus, which was identified as a separate species but which may in fact be a juvenile Tyrannosaurus Rex, whose skull changed dramatically as it matured, becoming much less elongated. This was suggested after a dinosaur mid-way between the size of a Nanotyrannus and Tyrannosaurus Rex was discovered. According to Horner, Nanotyrannus, which had 17 teeth in the lower jaw, was in fact a juvenile T. Rex, which had 12 lower-jaw teeth. The newly discovered dinosaur had 14 teeth in the lower jaw. Horner suggests that as the Tyrannosaurus Rex grew, it lost its small, blade-like teeth for larger bone-crushers.The researchers also studied late Cretaceous fossils of Triceratops found in the Hell Creek formation in eastern Montana. These dinosaurs had died at various ages, and their fossils revealed a number of changes as the animals grew. The skulls revealed the juveniles’ horns curved backwards, while the adults’ horns pointed forwards, while the bones around the frill flattened and lengthened as the dinosaur matured.Another researcher, Mark Goodwin, of the University of California in Berkeley, explained that they had been able to obtain a better growth series than had been available before, and this enabled them to document the changes occurring during the growth of the animals. Big changes in the body from infancy to adulthood may have been occurred for similar reasons to changes that occur in species today that ensure members of a species recognize each other and can distinguish between adults and juveniles needing protection.Not all paleontologists are convinced by the study. Paleontologist Hans-Dieter Sues, of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC agreed that some dinosaurs identified as separate species may turn out to be juveniles, since many vertebrates change in appearance as they mature. But the conclusions of the study are controversial and the claim that about a third have been misidentified is exaggerated, according to Sues. Testing the hypotheses is also difficult because there are not enough available fossils.The research is featured in a National Geographic documentary entitled “Dinosaurs Decoded”.© 2009 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — A new ten-year study by US paleontologists suggests that up to a third of dinosaur fossils may have been incorrectly identified as new species, when they are actually juveniles of species in which there was a dramatic change as they developed. Tyrannosaurus rex may have been scavenger Citation: Researchers claim a third of dinosaurs might never have existed (2009, October 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-10-dinosaurs.html Tyrannosaurus rex, a theropod from the Late Cretaceous of North America, pencil drawing. Image: Wikipedia.last_img read more

Hibernators live longer mainly because they escape predators

first_img Researcher Christopher Turbill of the Research Institute for Wildlife Ecology in Vienna, said that when animals hibernate they slow their metabolism and thus vastly reduce the energy required for their survival. They also tend to find a safe place in which to hibernate, which means they are less likely to die from predation while hibernating, and the research team believes this is the key to their longevity.Previous research also suggested that hibernating animals tended to have longer lives, but this was thought to be because they avoid the harsh winter temperatures and the competition for dwindling food supplies.Hibernation allows the animals to have around a 15 percent higher survival rate but they have fewer offspring each year than non-hibernating animals. In rodents for example, a non-hibernating species such as a rat weighing around 100 grams has up to 14 offspring a year, has a 17 percent chance of surviving the year, and its maximum lifespan is about 3.9 years. A hibernating rodent of the same size has only about eight offspring a year, but has a 50 percent chance of surviving and a maximum lifespan of 5.6 years.The research, which was based on analyzing previous studies of hibernation, along with new data on the edible dormouse (Glis glis), also suggested that hibernation could have been involved in the evolution of slower life-cycles, since hibernating animals tend to mature later than non-hibernating species with shorter lifespans. Co-author of the paper, Claudia Bieber of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, said scientists had previously thought hibernation posed a challenge for animals, but their research had shown the animals survive exceptionally well and also have a better chance of surviving the active season than non-hibernating animals. This is particularly true of small species (under 1.5 kg), such as the edible dormouse, which spends half the year in hibernation.The paper was published this week in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Citation: Hibernators live longer mainly because they escape predators (2011, April 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-hibernators-longer-predators.html Explore further Climate change might affect hibernation (PhysOrg.com) — Small animals generally live shorter lives than larger animals, but those that hibernate are an exception, primarily because they escape predation during the winter, according to a new study by scientists from Austria. Hibernating animals also reproduce more slowly than non-hibernating animals.center_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Hibernation is associated with increased survival and the evolution of slow life histories among mammals, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Published online before print March 30, 2011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0190 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Rational design can improve hydrogen fuel cell efficiency

first_imgIllustration of the trimetallic sandwich-like structure. Redox reactions take place on M1, while M2 tunes the electronic structure of M1, and M3 serves as the substrate and contributes to performance by straining M2. Image credit: Stolbov and Alcántara Ortigoza. ©2012 American Chemical Society Brookhaven Lab chemists receive patents for fuel-cell catalysts This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further The researchers, Sergey Stolbov and Marisol Alcántara Ortigoza from the University of Central Florida, have published their study on the new efficient electrocatalysts in a recent issue of The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. Currently, most hydrogen fuel cells use catalysts made of platinum, a rare and expensive material. Finding an alternative to platinum is challenging because few materials can withstand exposure to the fuel cells’ highly acidic solvents, which dissolve most transition metals. Only four elements – platinum, iridium, gold, and palladium – can resist corrosion, but none is ideal. Platinum and iridium are rare and expensive, while gold and palladium do not perform well due to low redox reactivity.In this study, Stolbov and Alcántara Ortigoza focused on improving the redox reactivity of gold and palladium through the use of in-depth modeling.“We have proposed a new concept for rational design of stable and highly active electrocatalysts for hydrogen fuel cells,” Stolbov told PhysOrg.com. “We believe that our approach is much more efficient than the widely used combinatorial screening of dozens of materials. Our first attempt to apply this approach has resulted in the prediction of two cost-effective and highly active catalysts for hydrogen fuel cells, a clean and renewable energy source.”The researchers explained that previous attempts at searching for better catalyst designs have used trial and error, although some studies have used computational searches. By using a rational design approach, the researchers could predict the performance of different tri-metallic catalyst designs using previous knowledge, such as the relationship between the composition/morphology and electronic structure of the catalyst surface, its stability, the thermodynamics that the reaction intermediates, and the reaction kinetics.This method led the researchers to a new design consisting of a three-layered sandwich-like structure. In this design, redox reactions take place on the first layer, while the second layer can tune the electronic structure of the first layer, and the third layer serves as the substrate. As an example, the researchers used gold as the first layer, then chose ruthenium as the second layer due to its ability to tune the gold layer to increase its redox reactivity. When using palladium as the first layer, their method predicted iron as a good tuning material. The ruthenium and iron do not have to come in contact with the acidic solvent, yet still contribute to the catalyst’s efficiency. In both cases, the researchers used tungsten as the substrate, which also contributed to performance in a twice-removed way by straining the middle layer.The researchers’ calculations showed that both the gold-based and palladium-based sandwich-like catalysts were more highly reactive and therefore more efficient than today’s best platinum-based catalysts. How much more efficient can only be accurately determined by experiments, which the researchers hope will be performed soon.“We are looking forward to experimental confirmation of our findings,” Stolbov said. “We are contacting experimentalists who are interested in these materials. Using our approach, we have already selected a number of sandwich-like structures as promising electrocatalysts in an attempt to find even better catalysts. In order to test this rational selection, we will perform computational studies of the electronic structure and stability of the chosen systems and the thermodynamic properties of the reaction intermediates on the catalyst surfaces. Then again, we will ask experimentalists for testing the most promising systems. Since our approach can be extended to design the stable structures tuned for reactions in heterogeneous catalysts, we will focus on this subject next.” (PhysOrg.com) — Hydrogen fuel cells, in which the chemical energy of hydrogen is converted into electricity, offer the potential for a wide variety of applications, especially in transportation and power generation. Although hydrogen fuel cells are currently used on a small scale, making them commercially available for large-scale use requires improvements in two key areas: efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In a new study, scientists have designed tri-metallic electrocatalysts for hydrogen fuel cells that theoretically improve in both areas, outperforming the best platinum-based catalysts to date. Copyright 2012 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Rational design can improve hydrogen fuel cell efficiency (2012, February 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-02-rational-hydrogen-fuel-cell-efficiency.html More information: Sergey Stolbov and Marisol Alcántara Ortigoza. “Rational Design of Competitive Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Fuel Cells.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2012, 3, 463-467. DOI: 10.1021/jz201551elast_img read more

Researchers find antioxidants can dispel static electricity

first_imgCredit: Chris Darling via Wikipedia. More information: Control of Surface Charges by Radicals as a Principle of Antistatic Polymers Protecting Electronic Circuitry, Science 20 September 2013: Vol. 341 no. 6152 pp. 1368-1371 DOI: 10.1126/science.1241326AbstractEven minute quantities of electric charge accumulating on polymer surfaces can cause shocks, explosions, and multibillion-dollar losses to electronic circuitry. This paper demonstrates that to remove static electricity, it is not at all necessary to “target” the charges themselves. Instead, the way to discharge a polymer is to remove radicals from its surface. These radicals colocalize with and stabilize the charges; when they are scavenged, the surfaces discharge rapidly. This radical-charge interplay allows for controlling static electricity by doping common polymers with small amounts of radical-scavenging molecules, including the familiar vitamin E. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by rendering common polymers dust-mitigating and also by using them as coatings that prevent the failure of electronic circuitry. Despite centuries of observation and work, scientists don’t really understand how static electricity works, which is a problem because our evolution has led us to a heavy reliance on electronic devices—one tiny spark can render them useless. Sparks can also set off explosions when they occur around gasses and flammable liquids, thus, research continues to find a way to stop static electricity from building up, or from being released in destructive sparks. In this new effort, the research team from Northwestern appears to have found a way to allow polymers to discharge harmlessly using nothing but antioxidant coatings.Scientists don’t really understand how it is that friction causes static electricity to build up, but one thing is clear, most have been overlooking the relationship between charge buildup and free radicals that also exist on a surface. To learn more, the researchers caused static to build up on several types of polymers then took a closer look using atomic force microscopy (a type of microscopy that can map the location of molecules). In so doing, they noticed that static charge builds up in clumps, and it’s the clumps that eventually provide a channel for the release of the charge. More importantly, they also noticed that the clumps also had free radicals mixed in with them—a phenomenon that made the researchers wonder if simply applying an antioxidant might cause the release of both the free radicals and the charge in a slow safe manner.To find out they created several batches of coatings with vitamin E and other antioxidants as a base and applied them to several types of polymers then applied a charge in two different ways: directly through contact with another material, or indirectly using an electrostatic charge. They found the coatings they developed worked to dispel static electricity buildup no matter how it got there—and were able to witness their success as the polymers no longer allowed dust to collect on their surfaces.The research team has applied for a patent on their coatings, but if their findings can be replicated by other scientists, it will mean the end of run-around solutions to static buildup and the damage that it can cause. Journal information: Science Northwestern research team turns theory of static electricity on its head (Phys.org) —A team of researchers at Northwestern University has found that applying antioxidants such as vitamin E to polymers can cause static charge buildup to disperse without an associated shock. In their paper published in the journal Science, the researchers describe their study of static electricity and how they found a previously unknown relationship between charges and free radicals.center_img Explore further Citation: Researchers find antioxidants can dispel static electricity (2013, September 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-09-antioxidants-dispel-static-electricity.html © 2013 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Study shows divorces rates rise when people have more potential mates to

first_imgCredit: CC0 Public Domain Citation: Study shows divorces rates rise when people have more potential mates to choose from (2018, September 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-divorces-people-potential.html Wives with more education than their husbands no longer at increased risk of divorce More information: Caroline Uggla et al. Higher divorce risk when mates are plentiful? Evidence from Denmark, Biology Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0475 There are, of course, a lot of factors that contribute to the success of a marriage. In this new effort, the researchers suggest one might be the degree of availability of other options. They carried out a study to learn more about factors that might contribute to the success or failure of marriages. It involved gaining access to and analyzing data on people living in Denmark over the years 1981 to 2002. They narrowed their focus to married heterosexual males and females who held jobs during that time span. They compared divorce rates between people in different occupations.The researchers found a trend—people who worked with a high ratio of co-workers of the opposite gender had higher divorce rates than those who did not. They noted the increase was most pronounced with men, and in particular, men with more education. Interestingly, for women with more education, there was no increase. The research did not uncover reasons for these trends, but the researchers offer some possibilities—such as men being more attracted to people with similar education and job interests. They note also that simply being around more women likely gave them more opportunities to meet a more suitable mate. The researchers also found that age at marriage appeared to play a role in the likelihood of divorce as well—those getting married younger were more likely to divorce than those waiting till after age 40. Also, living in the city had an apparent impact—those who lived outside of Copenhagen were less likely to get divorced than those who lived in the city. Also, more education in general tended to result in lower divorce rates. © 2018 Phys.orgcenter_img Journal information: Biology Letters A pair of researchers at Stockholm University has found that people who have a lot of co-workers of the opposite gender might have a higher risk of divorce. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, Caroline Uggla and Gunnar Andersson describe their study of heterosexual men and women living in Denmark over a 20-year period, and what they found. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Tune in to the musical extravangza

first_imgCircle in the next seven days, as the music scene in Delhi takes on a fervour like never before. For music buffs in the capital, the party is going to hit its crescendo with music from different genres and languages. Raag of the Nation is here to take you on a musical extravaganza from 6 to 12 May in Connaught place’s Central park.Delhi government and its department of Art, Culture and Languages bring you Euphoria, Jasbir Jassi, Shubha Mudgal and the who’s who of music to drown you in the melody of sound. Raag Rang is an initiative to bring together different genres of Indian music under one banner and showcase the fact that they might be different in forms but are a common carrier of our composite culture,’ said Nila Mohanan, Additional Secretary, Department of Art, Culture and Languages. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’With a deluge of multifarious artists comes the color of India: right from Punjabi and Bhojpuri folk to qawalli, Sindhi and contemporary music. Delve into the beats from the popular band Euphoria, performing on the sixth day of the festival, alongside the multigenre Astitva band. Or how about a contemporary dance performance by Santosh Nair while Atique Husain Hyderabadi hues up the fest with his qawalli? The last day will have the Indian Idol 4 sensation Mohit Lalwani wooing you with his voice. It’s going to be a task to decide your pick!DETAILWhen: 6 -12 MayWhere: Central Park, Connaught Placelast_img read more

Outpouring of emotion

first_imgArtist Vikash Kalra, whose style of painting has been likened to the modern master, Francis Newton Souza has always presented his works in such ways that art viewers outrage. In the present exhibition, Tales from the Soul Marrow, Kalra, however has chosen to display his ‘drawings’ in a collage mode, which is quite unlike other referential masters or even his own usual display strategies. At the same time it should be added to the critical views about his works that he prefers some sections of his creative ensembles to be exhibited in a collage mode. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Collages are created out of discarded and disparate materials and objects in a particular format in order to create a new logically comprehensive visual form, which is aesthetically appealing and radically diversified from the usual norms of visual arts.His art is a depiction of the turbulence, the climax and the ache in his life. His strokes are bold, definite, a burst of emotion. It offers you a glimpse of the intrinsic nature of man, of woman, of relationships and their tempestuousness.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixA keen look at his works and exhibitions so far reveal that in each exhibition he brings a set of works or framed works or sculptures framed within the space in an effort to make them as a singular work of art. Here his attempt is to collapse their distinct identities as autonomous works of art. The artist, using his internal logic, places one piece of drawing or painting, which could be a series of portraits, nudes or even animal heads, in relationship with the other in the ensemble and the cohesiveness looks so strong that taking out one of them would end up in totally collapsing the work of art.  But at the same time, if they are independently exhibited, without showing the possibility of them being together in a collage, they assume the nature of autonomous works of art, not even once betraying their closer affinities with the work of art seen/displayed next to it. Where: Art Indus, Race Course RoadWhen: April 24 to May 7 Timing: 11 am till 7 pmlast_img read more

Amid fears of oil spill from MV SSL Kolkata Forest Dept looks

first_imgKolkata: The state Forest department is taking possible measures to ensure that damages from the oil spill in water from MV SSL Kolkata, which caught fire in the Bay of Bengal on the night of June 13, can be kept to a minimum.”Oil spill from the cargo ship can be a major threat to the ecosystem of the Sunderbans. Hence, we are taking all possible measures on our part to remove as much oil as possible from the ship,” a senior official of the Sunderban Biosphere Reserve Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed(SBR) said.The Forest department has roped in five agencies that are involved in such transfer of fuel. They will conduct a survey within two or three days and will set up camps on the islands in close proximity of theaffected ship.Following this, they will manually transfer the fuel through small boats with the help of containers and thus remove them.The district magistrate of South 24-Parganas will be the nodal officer for the entire operation.”We have also moblised people from the adjoining villages, who will help people from the agencies in this herculean task that requires a lot of manpower,” Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPthe official added.A high-level meeting in this regard has been chaired by Chief Secretary Malay De, which was attended by the concerned agencies like Indian Coastguard, Indian Airforce, Kolkata Port Trust and top officials of the Forest department including SBR director R P Saini.”It is imperative that some portion of the oil will surely spill in the water. However, we are taking these measures so that the spill can be kept to a minimum.Apart from being a threat to ecology, river and sea creatures, greater amount of oil spill may mingle with the water and travel to human habitat area of Gosaba and others,” a senior official said. Experts have already stated that it is impossible to tow the ship and cargo has to be unloaded to avoidoil spill. There is nearly 400 tonne of furnace oil loaded in theaffected ship.The Kolkata Port Trust has already finalised talks with a Singapore-based company which will be sending a big ship for transferring the oil.There are a number of big containers from which manual lifting is impossible.A pipeline will be created and oil from the affected ship will be transferred to this ship.However, it will take more than 8 days for the ship to reach the spot.The oil spill may also endanger hilsa breeding and marine conditions around Haldia area in East Midnapore district of Bengal.last_img read more

Cut 71minute sitting time in office and live longer

first_imgWorkers please take note! Taking frequent breaks to reduce sitting time at workplace can help you cut extra body fat, thus lowering the risk of heart disease, diabetes and early death.The results which were followed up for three months showed a reduction of 0.61 per cent in body fat in study participants. This was a result of 71-minute shorter sitting time per day during working hours after one month.“A reduction in sitting time by 71 minutes per day could have positive effect in the long run as this could be associated with reduced risk of heart diseases, diabetes and all-cause mortality, especially among those who are inactive,” said professor Janne Tolstrup from National Institute of Public Health, Denmark. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Researchers from University of Southern Denmark, the National Research Centre for Prevention and Health and the University of Sydney conducted a multi-component work-based intervention to reduce sitting time and prolonged sitting periods. The team analysed 317 office workers in 19 offices across Denmark and Greenland randomly put into the intervention or control groups. The intervention included environmental office changes and a lecture and workshop, where workers were encouraged to use their sit-stand desks.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixBy wearing an accelerometer device, the researchers were able to measure results across a five-day working week.After one month, participants in the intervention group sat down for 71 minutes less in an eight-hour work day than the control group. This reduced to 48 minutes after three months. “The number of steps per workday hour was seven per cent higher at one month and eight per cent higher at three months,” said the study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology.last_img read more