Moving beyond the scientific nudge

first_imgFor decades, cognitive psychologists have sought to understand how the brain works and in recent years have outlined a number of theories — from implicit biases to the psychology of scarcity and tribalism — to explain how that influences our behavior.But some researchers now suggest that those theories, while providing valuable insight, only capture a portion of a more complex picture.In a study published recently in Nature Human Behavior, Michèle Lamont, the Robert I. Goldman Professor of European Studies, professor of sociology and of African and African American Studies, and director of the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, argues that to capture a fuller picture of human behavior, a new approach is needed, one that bridges the space between sociology and cognitive psychology.“Our idea was to try to create a dialogue between those two approaches,” Lamont said. “The hope is that will be fruitful in encouraging people to think more broadly … about what factors enable and influence human behavior.”To do that, Lamont and graduate students Laura Adler, Bo Yun Park, and Xin Xiang examined three popular streams of research on human behavior — studies using the implicit-association test, scarcity theory, and the dual-process model of moral decision-making — and attempted to show how cultural forces played a role in each.“What my collaborators and I did [in this paper] was to show that … we make sense of the world using the cultural scripts we are exposed to at a much broader level,” Lamont said. “When you think of the American dream, that is a framework or a narrative to interpret your reality which is quite different from the kinds of national myths that exist in other contexts.“For instance, in the U.S., the tools that are made available to us to think about what defines a good life or what defines the worth of people center far more on the notion of economic success,” she added. “But when you compare the U.S. to another country like France, inductive research shows that conceptions of success and morality vary a lot … These available scripts affect the likelihood that people interpret reality in one way or another.”But measures like the implicit-association test, which uses the speed with which people connect images with things perceived as good or bad as a metric for hidden bias, fall short of capturing cultural backgrounds, Lamont said.“If you run this test using images of President Obama and President Reagan, it’s not necessarily the case that I push the button faster because I like Obama more,” she said. “The speed of the response is also influenced by the degree of familiarity I have with each. In fact, variations in speed might have nothing to do with my beliefs about Obama or Reagan, but instead result from the fact that images of Obama are far more salient than images of Reagan in my environment. So it might tell you about the salience of the image more than it tells you about your attitude toward the image.”The difference between salience (something being familiar) and evaluation (something being viewed as good or bad) becomes essential when researchers try to draw a connection between response times in the implicit-association test and social outcomes such as discrimination. Whether or not response times indicate an increased likelihood that the person will discriminate depends on the cultural repertoires used to evaluate people of different races, genders, or other characteristics.That’s not to suggest the tests have no place in understanding human behavior.“We’re simply warning that the test … does not distinguish between what is salient to the mind and what is culturally valued in the environment,” Lamont said. “To better interpret the results, we believe researchers need to take into consideration the prevailing cultural landscape (or repertoires) in which people are functioning, and that goes beyond what is between people’s ears.”Lamont, who is past president of the American Sociological Association, found similar issues with theories about both scarcity and morality.“Scarcity theory is the idea that, because of a lack of resources, low-income people are tunneling (or focusing their attention exclusively on the scarce resource) … which leads them to make errors of judgment that could be avoided,” she said. “But how people make sense of their world should be empirically documented.” To understand why someone who lacks money makes decisions that appear economically irrational, researchers need to understand how the person values different resources (time, money, family connection, social status) and how the person prioritizes competing demands for attention and resources.A group of researchers studying moral judgment suggested that two competing cognitive processes produce sometimes conflicting moral judgments: The slower, more deliberative process produces utilitarian moral judgments, and is often viewed as preferable to the deontological — or rule-based — morality that results from fast, intuitive processes. Lamont and her colleagues suggested a need to re-examine the cultural assumptions baked into this model in order to understand how people come to make different moral decisions.“We think the way this frames how people make moral decisions is not in line with how people think about morality in everyday life,” she said. “To capture the place of morality in people’s lives, we should focus less on hypothetical scenarios such as ‘trolley dilemmas’ than on understanding the cultural ideas that undergird people’s understandings of what it means to be a good mother or a good friend.”Lamont said that the paper is not intended to impugn the work of cognitive psychology but to open a dialogue between two fields that often approach similar questions from different angles.“This is more about raising awareness of the aspects in the environment which they tend to put in the background, and which we think should be in the foreground,” she said. “We want to factor in a broader causal chain that they have been thinking about, and that requires creating intellectual interfaces where we can discuss where their analysis stops and where other approaches begin.”last_img read more

Josh Segarra Tapped for the CW’s Arrow

first_img Related Shows Josh Segarra(Photo: Caitlin McNaney) On Your Feet! Josh Segarra, who is currently starring as Emilio Estefan in On Your Feet! on Broadway, has landed a role on the CW’s Arrow. Deadline reports that he will appear as a season regular on the fifth installment of the hit show, which is set in the DC Comics universe.Segarra will take on the role of Star City’s new district attorney Adrian Chase, who is a supporter of Mayor Oliver Queen and wants to clean up the streets. Chases’s alter ego is the Vigilante.The actor made his Broadway debut in Lysistrata Jones. Segarra’s additional credits include Dogfight off-Broadway and Sirens, The Electric Company, Homeland and Chicago P.D. on the small screen.center_img View Comments Show Closed This production ended its run on Aug. 20, 2017last_img read more

Peruvian Officer Earns Master in Security in the US

first_imgBy Julieta Pelcastre/Diálogo August 31, 2018 Peruvian Navy Commander Eduardo Díaz León, of the Marine Corps Special Forces, is the second Peruvian service member to take part in the International Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program at the U.S. National Defense University (NDU) in Washington, D.C. The officer earned a Master of Strategic Security Studies degree in May 2018. The U.S. Security Cooperation Office extended an invitation to Cmdr. Díaz to take part in the program from June 3, 2017, to May 31, 2018. A total of 87 students from 29 countries took the course. All are members of the armed forces, special units, and agencies involved in the fight against terrorism and transnational threats. “The program started after 9/11, when the U.S. government reconfigured its whole strategy,” Cmdr. Díaz told Diálogo. “The United States considered the need to train military and civilian advisers at a strategic level against terrorism and create a global network with all partner nations, including Peru.” The educational program was divided into three cycles. The first focused on philosophy studies, the different ideologies, and the analysis of terrorist and insurgent groups. Students then learned how to combat groups and analyzed the different strategies countries around the world use. In the last cycle, participants learned about the creation and implementation of strategies and guidance for their countries. Students also delved into U.S. national security and democracy. “The process helped me understand that war isn’t just in the battlefield. The program teaches us to analyze the roots of the problem to make a correct diagnosis,” Cmdr. Díaz said. “The military is just a tool that the government can and must use against insurgency. There are economic, social, and cultural aspects that we need to learn to connect and use.” Lines of Effort Radical groups, Cmdr. Díaz stressed, are known transnational threats that operate against the global community, such as al-Qaeda, the Islamic State group, Boko Haram, al-Shabab, Hamas, Hezbollah, the Shining Path, and the National Liberation Army. Latin America, he added, should focus more on terrorism, because risks arise where appealing and vulnerable targets exist. For example, the Peruvian area in the Apurímac, Ene, and Mantaro Rivers Valley (VRAEM, in Spanish) is vulnerable to terrorism. In the hard-to-reach area, lacking a communication network, people live in isolation. “It becomes a nest that any group can use. It’s known that when there’s a vacuum, someone fills it up. The lack of governmental presence allowed the Shining Path to maintain extensive relationships with narcotrafficking,” said Peruvian Minister of Defense José Huerta Torres in a release. “The armed forces are determined to fight against this social evil [terrorists partnering with narcotrafficking] that remains in the VRAEM.” “After learning and studying about different terrorist and insurgent groups, I think that the problem of terrorism can be solved in my country. When you fight against this kind of insurgency, you need to attack the root,” Cmdr. Díaz said. “Insurgency has many arms, which we call lines of effort. There is a military line of effort, as well as a political, an economic, and an international line. We may only see the military part, but we should [fight against] every line of effort.” According to the 2017 Global Terrorism Index of the Institute for Economics and Peace, three quarters of all worldwide deaths related to terrorism occur in only five countries: Turkey, Israel, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Nigeria. Terrorism affects those countries the most since 2013. “Transnational threats force us to have an international response; we cannot be isolated from the world against a threat that moves through different countries,” Cmdr. Díaz said. “Terrorism has an ally, narcotrafficking, which moves at a [global] level. If we make our fight international, terrorism will be left without its main source of funding.” International network against global crime “I’m grateful to the Peruvian Navy and the U.S. government for the opportunity to take the master’s course, an efficient and rigorous program that created cohesion among us [the students],” Cmdr. Díaz said. “I feel I belong to an international network against global crime. We strengthened professional academic bridges and bonds of friendship, which are important when operating against these threats.” Graduates can join a network of more than 500 professionals devoted to fighting terrorism in more than 80 countries. According to NDU, alumni use their education and partnership through the network to achieve a significant impact when fulfilling their mission. “It’s key to keep up our contact network and be up to date with this issue, because terrorism evolves,” Cmdr. Díaz said. “I’m living proof that classmates matter. I advise graduates to maintain and use the networks they created.”last_img read more

The main features of the Chinese tourism market in 2019

first_imgThe world’s largest tourist market continues to grow unstoppably In the period from 01.-07.10.2019. during Golden Week, over 800 million Chinese traveled, of which 7,5 million traveled abroad. We have prepared acceptable price packages for you with which you can start working on the “Chinese market” project. Europa je za njih i dalje najinteresantnijetržište, pa su se tako i ove godine tri europske zemlje – Italija, Njemačka iVelika Britanija – ponovo našle među deset najpopularnijih turističkihodredišta za kineske turiste tijekom Zlatnog tjedna. Ukoliko  ste spremni na sljedeći korak – prezentirati svoj proizvod na kineskom jeziku, više informacija potražite HERE. During this year, we have witnessed a series of political events that call into question China’s relationship with a number of Western countries. Although geopolitics for the tourism industry is secondary, for Chinese tourists, political issues, from the U.S. trade dispute to the constant unrest on the streets of Hong Kong, have a major impact on deciding the destination for the next trip abroad. ProConcept is the exclusive agent IPPWORLD for Croatia and the countries of the region. IPPWORLD Agency is your partner that offers multilingual content translations and media networking in one place for all your needs in global branding and promotion of offers for hoteliers and caterers, lifestyle and retail. More information at www.ippworld.com/hr/ Previđa se da će u 2019. ukupna potrošnjaiznositi 315,0 milijardi dolara. Alipay je neki dan objavio podatak da suKinezi tijekom Zlatnog tjedna 2019. potrošili više nego u 2018. Prosječni iznosračuna plaćenog putem mobilne aplikacije Alipaya povećao se za 15%, i iznosioje 350,00 USD. Također je objavljen podatak da je prosječna potrošnja po putovanjuporasla sa 6.050,00  na 6.700,00 USD! FIT-ovci (free independent traveler)troše najviše, i u ukupnoj masi turista iz Kine njihov je udio 80%.  In addition, we should take advantage of the fact that Croatian-Chinese relations are extremely good at the moment, so it is really the right time to enter the Chinese tourist market. The highest growth in arrivals is in southern Europe, where the Chinese are looking for new attractive destinations. Compared to 2018, in 2019 the growth in the number of Chinese tourists is as follows: Serbia 39,0%, Montenegro 44,0%, Croatia 53,0%, Cyprus 125,0%.center_img Although this growth is based on relatively low starting figures, the increasing availability of these locations, together with simpler visa regimes, are helping such growth. The abolition of visas for entry into Serbia and Montenegro has a huge impact, and combined with the trend of Chinese tourists to want to visit a location where there are no other Chinese, it is a complete success. Chinese millennials are planning more and more short trips to distant destinations, while Chinese tourists are generally exploring a larger number of distant destinations, according to Hotelbeds. For services of creative translation of promotional materials into Chinese and promotion in the Chinese tourism market, send an inquiry to info@proconcept.hr or call 01/20 10 122. Consider also the fact that China’s outbound tourism market is the largest in the world in terms of total consumption. North America experienced a drop in Chinese tourist arrivals of over 2019% in 10,0, and the consumption of Chinese tourists in New York decreased by 11,9%. In Canada, the situation is very similar. At the beginning of the year, they had a record number of tourists for the Chinese New Year, but the diplomatic dispute over Huawei, along with the tightening of the visa regime, resulted in minuses in the second half of the year. Hong Kong expects to lose 350.000 tourists in the coming months. In the first quarter of 2019, the increase in the number of individual tourists from China worldwide increased by 12,7%. This trend is very likely to continue in 2020. If you are not currently targeting the Chinese tourism market, now is the right time to build a strategy to attract “the most promising target group of tourists for the European tourism industry.” At the same time, the Chinese outbound tourism market continues its great growth, so Chinese tourists are finding equally attractive destinations in other parts of the world. Together with you, we can make your product speak the language of global tourists, all in order to generate the revenue you have planned.last_img read more

Lithuanian schemes generate positive returns despite ‘erratic’ markets

first_imgDespite what BoL termed this year’s “erratic” markets, however, 11 of the 21 funds – all the conservative ones, two low-risk and three medium-risk structures – managed to produce positive returns.Audrius Šilgalis, chief specialist of BoL’s financial services and market analysis division, noted on the Bank’s website: “Good pension fund performance for the second quarter, even after the Brexit referendum, which shocked financial markets, offset the influence of negative trends that prevailed at the beginning of the year.”Second-pillar assets grew by 9.9% to €2,246m and membership by 4.2% to 1.19m.The asset growth was boosted by this year’s increase in the additional members’ and state budget contribution rates from 1% to 2%.These accounted, respectively, for 22.6% and 24.6% of the €128.3m asset increase since the end of 2015.Returns for the substantially smaller third pillar showed a similar pattern to that of the second, with the average plunging from 6.06% as of the end of June 2015 to minus 1.22% by the end of the following March, then recovering to minus 0.02% three months later.The conservative funds averaged 2.3%, with all three in positive territory.While the four medium-risk funds averaged minus 0.72% and the five high-risk plans minus 0.83%, one fund in each category managed to buck the trend.The number of members increased year on year by 10.3% to 48,951, while assets grew by 23.4% to €66.1m because of higher contributions from participants. The six-month year-to-date nominal returns for the voluntary second-pillar pension system averaged minus 0.10%, according to the Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the country’s pension regulator.This marked a significant deterioration compared with the 4.7% generated 12 months earlier but was an improvement on the first quarter’s return of minus 0.18%.The best results as of the end of June were generated by the six conservative bond funds, at 0.77%, followed by the four low-risk funds with 25-30% equity investment (minus 0.01%), the seven medium-risk funds with equity limits of 50-70% (minus 0.02%), and the four high-risk funds, with up to 100% invested in equities (minus 1.32%).This is a reversal of last year’s trend when high equity levels generated the best results.last_img read more

Engie to Buy 23 Percent Stake in 1.1GW Moray Offshore Wind Project

first_imgFrench energy giant Engie has agreed to acquire a 23% stake in equity shareholding and outstanding shareholders loans on the Moray Offshore Windfarm (East) Limited (MOWEL) from EDPR UK Limited, a subsidiary of EDP Renováveis S.A. Engie bought the 23% stake for a total consideration of GBP 21 million, EDPR said.With the completion of this transaction, Engie, a partner of EDPR in offshore projects in France and floating projects in Portugal and France, will participate in the investment, development and operation of the Moray wind offshore project, located in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland.In January 2010, MOWEL was awarded the right, under a farm leasing programme conducted by The Crown Estate, to develop offshore wind energy in Zone 1 of the Third Offshore Wind Licensing Round, and in March 2014 was granted consent by the Scottish government for up to 1,116 MW offshore wind development.The project consists of the Telford, Stevenson and MacColl offshore wind farms, which are planned for construction 14 miles (22km) from the Caithness coastline.last_img read more

Greensburg teen charged with rape

first_imgGREENSBURG, Ind. — A Greensburg teenager was arrested and is being charged as an adult after being accused of rape and criminal confinement.According to police, Paul W. Rose, 17, is facing charges of Rape, Sexual Battery, and Criminal Condiment.Under Indiana law, the case can be tried in adult court due to the age of Rose and the severity of the charges.Police say the incident occurred in January.Investigators met with the young girl in February when she told them that the encounter started off consensual, but she said later that evening it escalated and she told Rose to stop, but he continued and wouldn’t let her leave.A $10,000 bond was set on Wednesday, and a jury trial has been scheduled for July 26.last_img read more

The Latest: UEFA calls soccer officials for Tuesday meeting

first_img___10:30 a.m.The International Basketball Federation says it is suspending all competitions indefinitely from Friday.FIBA says the decision was made “in order to protect the health and safety of players, coaches, officials and fans.”The suspension includes games in the Basketball Champions League, which is a rival competition to the better known Euroleague, and the second-tier FIBA Europe Cup. The Champions League is part-way through its playoffs. The Danish league made the move a day after the national government announced a lockdown. The small Scandinavian country has 514 cases of people testing positive.“We will look at exactly what this will mean for the running of the tournaments for the weeks to come,” said Danish league director Claus Thomsen, adding more information on what will happen with the postponed matches and the rest of the season will be announced later.___10:10 a.m.The Swiss hockey league has ended the season in the top two divisions before the playoffs because of the spreading coronavirus. March 12, 2020 11:30 a.m.McLaren says it has withdrawn from the season-opening Australian Grand Prix in Melbourne after a team member tested positive for the coronavirus.The British-based team says the person was self-isolated as soon as they started to show symptoms and “will now enter a period of quarantine.”Team officials have taken the decision to pull out of Sunday’s race “based on a duty of care” for McLaren employees and the wider Formula One family.Qualifying was scheduled to start Friday. The league’s decision comes less than two months before Switzerland is due to host the world championships in Zurich and Lausanne.The league says decisions on awarding titles, and promotion and relegation places, will be decided at a special meeting on Friday.The Swiss soccer leagues have been suspended through March, and Basel is unable to host a Europa League game next week against Eintracht Frankfurt.___10:05 a.m. Rugani is the first player in the country’s top soccer division to test positive for the virus.___9:55 a.m.The season-ending men’s World Cup ski races were canceled Thursday to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, giving Norwegian skier Aleksander Aamodt Kilde his first overall title.Giant slalom and slalom races were scheduled for this weekend in Kranjska Gora, near Slovenia’s border with Italy. “Full details regarding the rescheduling of competitions will be announced at a later date,” the FIE said. “Information regarding Olympic selection criteria will be made as schedules for the remainder of the season are finalized.”___11:40 a.m.The Indian Premier League Twenty20 tournament could be staged without spectators after a government decree related to the coronavirus outbreak.Indian sports minister Kiren Rijuju told all national sports federations to ban spectators at all events, but events can go on if they “can’t be avoided.” The Latest: UEFA calls soccer officials for Tuesday meeting International Bandy Association president Boris Skrynnik says “we know that there are concerns in other countries when it comes to travel and spending time with larger groups.”The under-15 world championships in Arkhangelsk, Russia, at the end of the month will also be played at a later date.___10:15 a.m.Denmark’s top soccer leagues are shutting down for at least two weeks because of the spreading coronavirus. 10 a.m.The Juventus player who tested positive for the coronavirus says he’s “OK” and wants “to reassure everyone who is worrying about me.” Juventus announced late Wednesday that defender Daniele Rugani and “those who have had contact with him” are being isolated. It also said Rugani is not showing any symptoms of the disease.Rugani sent a post on Twitter overnight in Italian.“You’ll have read the news and that’s why I want to reassure everyone who is worrying about me. I’m OK. I want to remind everyone to respect the rules, because this virus doesn’t make distinctions! Let’s do it four ourselves, for those dear to us and for those around us,” he wrote. After the NBA suspended its season, the Euroleague is considering doing the same.The league says it is consulting with clubs about a suspension, something which its players are demanding.“Euroleague and the participating clubs cannot ask from players to put their health and that of their families at risk,” the Euroleague Players Association said.The players’ union asked for the season to be suspended “until health, safety and freedom of movement can be guaranteed.”___ UEFA has called European soccer stakeholders to a meeting by video conference on Tuesday to deal with the effect on competitions of the coronavirus outbreak.UEFA says they will discuss “all domestic and European competitions.” That includes this year’s European Championship.The meetings will involve UEFA member federations and representatives of clubs, national leagues and player unions.There is no blanket suspension of soccer across the continent, but national leagues have been shut down by public authorities in some countries, including Italy and Spain.___ 11:05 a.m.German broadcaster Sky says it will show some Bundesliga soccer games on a free channel after spectators were barred from the stadiums.Sky will show four league games simultaneously on Saturday on its non-subscription news channel in a “conference” format, with the broadcast switching between each game to show the key action.That includes Borussia Dortmund’s game against Schalke, which is one of Germany’s most heated rivalries.There will be a similar procedure for some second-division games. ___10:55 a.m.The Euroleague says it is suspending all games indefinitely because of the coronavirus outbreak.Europe’s main club basketball competition says it made the decision because of “the increased risks for participants in games, the vast amount of traveling disruptions causing the impossibility to reach certain destinations, and the different recommendations by the health authorities.”The league was scheduled to hold regular-season games in Moscow, Istanbul, Madrid and Tel Aviv on Thursday. Men’s qualification for the Tokyo Olympics is expected to resume in June with a series of qualifying tournaments overseen by FIBA. Women’s qualifying has already concluded.___10:25 a.m.The hockey-like game of bandy has postponed its world championships in Russia because of the spreading coronavirus.The Swedish Bandy Association says the tournament, scheduled to be played from March 29-April 5 in Irkutsk, has been postponed until October. The decision impacts the hugely popular IPL, due to start on March 29 and last seven weeks.It’s not yet been determined how it will affect the one-day international series between India and South Africa which began on Thursday in Dharamsala. The second ODI is in Lucknow on Sunday, and the third ODI in Kolkata next Wednesday.Foreign players are expected to face difficulties in traveling to India as the government on Wednesday suspended all visas, barring categories such as diplomatic and employment-related, until April 15 in an attempt to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.Unless the government makes an exception, foreign cricketers will not be given business visas with which they travel to play the IPL.___ NoonThe International Fencing Federation has postponed all international events for the next five weeks, including four Olympic qualifying tournaments.The FIE made the decision after the coronavirus outbreak was declared a pandemic, and the U.S. banned travelers from 26 European countries starting on Friday.The events postponed included the Africa, Asia, Europe and Americas qualifiers next month. Also off is the Anaheim Grand Prix in California starting on Friday, and the junior world championships in Salt Lake City next month.Four World Cups in saber and epee next week were also called off. The cancellations mean Henrik Kristoffersen, another Norwegian, becomes the season champion in both disciplines by tiny margins.A four-race finals week in Cortina d’Ampezzo, Italy, was canceled last week by the International Ski Federation.“The health and welfare of the athletes and all other participants, as well as the general public are in the forefront and the priority of FIS and all stakeholders,” the governing body said Thursday.Kilde’s runner-up finish in what proved to be the season-ending race — a downhill last Saturday in Kvitfjell, Norway — lifted him to the overall title above French rival Alexis Pinturault.Pinturault also finished runner-up to Kristoffersen in giant slalom. Another Frenchman, Clement Noel, was runner-up to Kristoffersen for the season-long slalom title by only two points, 552-550. ___11:15 a.m.Real Madrid says its soccer and basketball teams have been put in quarantine after a basketball play for the club tested positive for the coronavirus.The Spanish club says the soccer team was also affected because it shares training facilities with the basketball team.___ Kristoffersen had an outside chance of winning the overall title if the final two races had gone ahead.Kilde succeeds Austrian great Marcel Hirscher, who won eight straight overall titles before retiring in the offseason.___More AP sports: https://apnews.com/apf-sports and https://twitter.com/AP_Sports Associated Press Share This StoryFacebookTwitteremailPrintLinkedinRedditLONDON (AP) — The Latest on the coronavirus outbreak’s affect on sports around the globe (all times local):___1:40 p.m. ___11 a.m.South Korea’s professional baseball league says it will postpone the start of its season to mid-April because of the coronavirus outbreak.The Korea Baseball Organization says it still hopes to maintain a 144-game regular-season schedule but will consider banning spectators from some games when risks of infections are high.The KBO had already canceled its preseason.last_img read more