Webinars 2020-12-03 Christina Hughes Babb Print This Post Related Articles Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Real Estate Valuations in a Time of Crisis David NewellOn Wednesday, January 20 from 1-2 p.m. CST, a panel of industry pundits will participate in a complimentary virtual roundtable session presented by Clear Capital entitled “Managing Mortgage Servicing Challenges in Uncertain Times: How Modern Real Estate Valuations Will Help.”The event is an installment of the DS News Webinar Series, and readers can register here.David Newell, VP, Customer Development at Clear Capital, a real estate valuation services and technology company, will moderate the discussion.Other real estate valuations experts on the panel include:Kenon ChenClear Capital EVP Kenon Chen—As head of corporate strategy, Chen works at the intersection of executive, product, marketing, and sales team at Clear Capital. Since the company’s inception, he has developed and launched some of its more forward-looking solutions, including Clear Capital’s ClearProp and ClearCollateral. He entered the mortgage industry in the 2000s leading tech products for a large lender.Bryce FendallBryce Fendall, VP at Statebridge, a provider of special servicing and subservicing in the mortgage industry—Fendall specializes in loan servicing default management, foreclosure, bankruptcy, and REO oversight. He also is experienced in loss mitigation, proactive/reactive short sales, proactive/reactive deeds in lieu, and valuation management, to name a few. Dan McAlisterDan McAlister, Director of Product Management—Field Valuation Products, Clear Capital—his expertise lies in bringing software-driven products to market and growing revenue on existing products.Newell, Chen, Fendall, and McAlister will discuss, among other topics:Servicing challenges amid a global pandemicWhere is the servicing industry headingChoosing the right valuation partnerClick here to register for this complimentary webinar. Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Tagged with: Webinars The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago December 3, 2020 2,125 Views Share 2Save Home / Daily Dose / Real Estate Valuations in a Time of Crisis Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Previous: Real Estate Fund Designates $1 Billion to Communities of Color Next: Increasing Natural Disasters Endanger Affordable Housing Supply Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Christina Hughes Babb is a reporter for DS News and MReport. A graduate of Southern Methodist University, she has been a reporter, editor, and publisher in the Dallas area for more than 15 years. During her 10 years at Advocate Media and Dallas Magazine, she published thousands of articles covering local politics, real estate, development, crime, the arts, entertainment, and human interest, among other topics. She has won two national Mayborn School of Journalism Ten Spurs awards for nonfiction, and has penned pieces for Texas Monthly, Salon.com, Dallas Observer, Edible, and the Dallas Morning News, among others. The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Sign up for DS News Daily in Daily Dose, Featured, News, Webinars About Author: Christina Hughes Babb Subscribe
Last Updated: 9th August, 2020 22:10 IST Binder And KTM: On Top Of The MotoGP™ World In Brno In an unearthly unpredictable MotoGP™ race at Monster Energy Czech Republic Grand Prix, Brad Binder in just his 3rd premier class race stormed to victory 1 month ago J.T. Realmuto’s 3-run homer helps Phillies beat Yankees 5-4 LIVE TV 4 weeks ago MotoGP Czech Republic GP live stream: How to watch MotoGP race, schedule and start time First Published: 9th August, 2020 22:10 IST 1 month ago New surgery keeps Marc Marquez out of MotoGP race this weekend WE RECOMMEND SUBSCRIBE TO US 1 month ago Triple threat: Quartararo wins as Yamaha lockout podium FOLLOW US Written By 1 month ago Lewis Hamilton puts off signing new Mercedes deal due to ‘other people losing jobs’ COMMENT Red Bull KTM Factory Racing has done it. Brad Binder has done it. In an unearthly unpredictable MotoGP™ race at the Monster Energy Czech Republic Grand Prix, the South African – in just his third premier class race – stormed to an emotional first win to become the first rookie since Marc Marquez (Repsol Honda Team) to win in MotoGP™. Binder won by over five seconds to lead Franco Morbidelli (Petronas Yamaha SRT) over the line as the Italian picks up his first MotoGP™ rostrum, with polesitter Johann Zarco (Esponsorama Racing) – despite taking a long lap penalty for an incident with Pol Espargaro (Red Bull KTM Factory Racing) – taking a memorable podium. Wow, just wow.As the lights went out at the Czech Adrenaline Factory, Zarco couldn’t get the GP19 hooked up off the line with his holeshot device as the Frenchman slipped backwards, with the two Petronas Yamaha SRT riders getting good launches.Fabio Quartararo led into the first corner but was slightly wide, allowing Morbidelli to slip through and take the lead. Aleix Espargaro (Aprilia Racing Team Gresini) also got away well from P4 to grab P3, which was soon P2 at Turn 4 as the Spaniard carved past the Championship leader, with the Red Bull KTM Factory Racing bikes of Pol Espargaro and Binder making a great start to sit 4th and 5th, with Zarco down to P6.Binder was then a man on a mission. The South African cut through teammate Espargaro and then got by the latter’s brother on the Aprilia with ease, and soon he was right on the tailpipes of Quartararo. The Frenchman was a second off Morbidelli as that gap stayed pretty consistent in the opening few laps, hovering between 1 and 1.3 seconds. Pol Espargaro was getting impatient behind Zarco after losing out to the poleman, but after a failed attempt the lap before, the number 44 was through at Turn 3 on Lap 6 and immediately set sights on his teammate and Quartararo, and the battle for second soon became a double factory KTM vs Quartararo fight.Binder was then through on El Diablo on Lap 9. Turn 3 the chosen place, Binder was slightly wide but the rookie made it stick and, then, Pol Espargaro was through. However the Spaniard was wide at Turn 13 and lost the place before huge drama then unfolded at Turn 1 on Lap 10.Espargaro was wide at Turn 1, but not by much. Zarco, just behind, was on the inside line and as Espargaro swept back to get the run-up through Turn 2, there was contact between the two. Zarco’s front wheel came in contact with Espargaro’s body and the KTM man was out – heartbreak for the latter as Race Direction began to look at the incident, later handing Zarco a long lap penalty. How costly could that be for Zarco?There may have been heartbreak for one orange bike, but up the road, Binder wasn’t showing any signs of slowing up. With Binder past Quartararo, another Petronas Yamaha bike was about to feel the wrath. The 33 reeled in Morbidelli with ease and with nine laps left in Brno, Binder led a MotoGP™ race for the first time – but you wouldn’t have thought it. Immediately, Binder started to stride clear of Morbidelli and on the same lap, Zarco took the long lap penalty.And the Frenchman couldn’t have nailed it better, some spectacular riding saw Zarco sweep round the outside of Turn 7 like his tyres were glued to the asphalt. An unreal and pinpoint piece of riding saw Zarco emerge just ahead of Quartararo as the latter clear hit tyre troubles at the mid-point, with Alex Rins (Team Suzuki Ecstar), Valentino Rossi (Monster Energy Yamaha MotoGP) and Miguel Oliveira (Red Bull KTM Tech3) starting to hunt him in.Upfront, all eyes were on someone who was quickly making a name for himself just two and a half races into his MotoGP™ career. Morbidelli simply had no answer to Binder’s ridiculous pace and South Africa’s new sporting hero was leaving his more experienced competitors in his wake.With seven laps to go the gap was up to a second and a couple of laps later, the lead was 2.1. Was this really it for KTM?Meanwhile, the Championship leader was in a spot of bother. Rins – still riding injured by the way – was swarming and slid underneath the YZR-M1 rider at Turn 4 with five laps to go, with nine-time World Champion Rossi soon following suit on the same lap. Quartararo quickly found himself lingering down in sixth, with Oliveira now smelling blood too. With four laps to go, Quartararo fell victim to Oliveira and at the front, Binder’s lead soon surpassed the three-second barrier as dreams started to turn into a reality for KTM.Two to go then. Binder – barring a mistake – was in dreamland had this wrapped up. Morbidelli was safe in second but Zarco was far from safe in the final podium spot. Rins was hot on the heels of the Ducati and Zarco was clearly struggling with rear grip and with two to go, the gap was 0.6 between the GP19 and GSX-RR. That was soon nothing however and Zarco had a nervous final lap coming up.Binder had a nervous final lap coming up too, but for very different reasons. Binder’s lead was over four seconds and this was it for him and KTM. More than four years of tireless work from the Austrian factory were about to become worth it as a new MotoGP™ star was being born. Binder made no such error and brought his RC-16 home to etch his name into premier class and KTM folklore.Childhood dreams realised across the board. KTM have arrived to the party, Brad Binder has arrived to the party as MotoGP™ delivers the goods again. Morbidelli brought his Yamaha home to secure a fantastic maiden MotoGP™ podium in second, the Italian had a special weekend in the Czech Republic and he now moves into P3 in the overall standings.Back to the final podium place battle and Rins was looking menacing. However, Zarco was holding firm and did so brilliantly to secure his first premier podium since 2018 Malaysian GP. It was a huge day for the Avintia team too, who achieve their first MotoGP™ podium thanks to Zarco on a year-old Ducati. Pole and a podium is something they could have only dreamed of when they landed in the Czech Republic.A huge shout out has to go to Rins too. Fourth place in Brno after suffering a dislocation-fracture to the shoulder at the Spanish GP is nothing short of remarkable. Close to the Suzuki man was Rossi who climbed to P5 from a P10 starting place in another great ride for The Doctor, with Oliveira finishing P6 to cement his best premier class finish having started 13th – top work from the Portuguese man. Quartararo won’t be too pleased to have finished 11 seconds from the win in P7, but it’s valuable points in the title race nonetheless.Takaaki Nakagami (LCR Honda Idemitsu) finished one second adrift of Quartararo in P8, two seconds up the road from Jack Miller (Pramac Racing) who pips Aleix Espargaro to P9 on the last lap. Miller ended the day as the leading GP20 rider, just over a second up the road from Andrea Dovizioso (Ducati Team) as the pair salvage P9 and P11 from P14 and P18 starting positions.Espargaro’s P10 was his first finish of 2020 – important for the Spaniard and team. Danilo Petrucci (Ducati Team) finishing 12th gives the Bologna factory plenty to think about as they head to the Austria double-header, hoping to keep their 100% record at the Red Bull Ring intact.LCR Honda Castrol’s Cal Crutchlow finished 13th in Brno as he continues to battle a left scaphoid injury, and nine-tenths behind him, Maverick Viñales (Monster Energy Yamaha MotoGP) takes just two points home in P14. The Spaniard will go back to the drawing board to find out what happened at the Czech GP as he loses valuable ground in the Championship – 17 points the gap to Quartararo now.Alex Marquez (Repsol Honda Team) 15th to continue his record of scoring at least a point in his first three MotoGP™ races.Iker Lecuona (Red Bull KTM Tech3) lost the front and collected Joan Mir (Team Suzuki Ecstar) in the early stages as the duo crashed out of contention.A new star is born in MotoGP™ as Binder and KTM head to the factory’s home race in Austria for a double-header. The result sees Binder sit just three points behind Dovizioso in the overall standings; the man who has competed in three premier class races sits ahead of the likes of Rossi and Miller too.Quartararo extends his lead in the Championship despite a seventh-place finish, not the end of the world for the Frenchman. And the best thing about it, we do it all over again in less than a week’s time.The 2020 MotoGP™ World Championship will next move to Austria for the myWorld Motorrad Grand Prix von Österreich (Austrian GP) at the Red Bull Ring – Spielberg on August 16, 2020, LIVE on Eurosport and Eurosport HD.Top 10:1. Brad Binder (Red Bull KTM Factory Racing)2. Franco Morbidelli (Petronas Yamaha SRT) + 5.2663. Johann Zarco (Esponsorama Racing) + 6.4704. Alex Rins (Team Suzuki Ecstar) + 6.6095. Valentino Rossi (Monster Energy Yamaha MotoGP) + 7.5176. Miguel Oliveira (Red Bull KTM Tech3) + 7.9697. Fabio Quartararo (Petronas Yamaha SRT) + 11.8278. Takaaki Nakagami (LCR Honda Idemitsu) + 12.8629. Jack Miller (Pramac Racing) + 15.01310. Aleix Espargaro (Aprilia Racing Team Gresini) + 15.087READ | MotoGP Czech Republic GP Live Stream: How To Watch MotoGP Race, Schedule And Start TimeREAD | New Surgery Keeps Marc Marquez Out Of MotoGP Race This Weekend Digital Desk WATCH US LIVE
The number one pick in the 2016 draft, All-Star guard Simmons had attempted 17 shots from beyond the arc in the league, with much made about his jump shot and unwillingness to shoot the 3. Simmons, however, made a three-pointer in the opening quarter against the Knicks — his 172nd game in the NBA.”It feels good to put work in in the summer and it pays off,” Simmons said post-game in Philadelphia midweek. pic.twitter.com/pO98CaKS55— Philadelphia 76ers (@sixers) November 21, 2019Wells Fargo Center erupted as fans and teammates celebrated Simmons’ maiden 3-pointer.The last time Simmons made a 3-pointer in a competitive game was Nov. 30, 2015, while he was a freshman at LSU playing against the College of Charleston — almost four years ago. There was speculation throughout the offseason Simmons had added range to his shooting game, but this was the first 3-pointer he’d attempted so far in 2019-20. Ben Simmons said it felt good for his hard work to pay off after the 76ers star drained his first NBA 3-pointer.Simmons ended his long wait for a regular-season three as the 76ers topped the New York Knicks 109-104 on Wednesday. “We need him to shoot,” 76ers teammate Joel Embiid said. “It’s great to see him make it, take it, most importantly make it. That’s great. He’s going to keep getting better and make it happen. But it was nothing special. We see it in practice. We’ve seen it a lot, so it’s not surprising to me.”Sixers head coach Brett Brown added: “Like I’ve said for a while now, other people get more excited about it than I do. “But how can that not be a good thing? And, really, if we’re all honest, that’s the first legitimate sort of three he’s taken.”A lot of them have been heaves at the end of periods, and stuff like that. But I think his footwork, his confidence, he rose up and he didn’t blink. He looked great.”
Submitted to Sumner Newscow â€” Todayâ€™s Wellington High School bulletin for Wednesday, Aug. 26, 2015:Wednesdayâ€¢WHS Football pictures, 6 p.m.Thursdayâ€¢JV tennis at Maize South, 3 p.m.â€¢Hamburger Scrimmage, 6 p.m.â€¢Volleyball pictures, 4:15 p.m.FridayNothing scheduled.Todayâ€™s Lunch– Taco Salad, Tortilla Chips with Salsa, Refried Beans, Cinnamon Puff, Pineapple Tidbits and MilkTodayâ€™s News*FCA will be meeting in Mr. Ginters room this Friday at 7:00 a.m. Don’t miss out!*Auditions for the All School play will begin today at 3:30 p.m. through 8 p.m. If you plan to attend the audition times after 6 p.m., please sign up with Mrs. Kelly in room 106. Auditions on Wednesday will begin at 3:30 and end at 5:00. Any student can audition for this production.* NHS will meet on Thursday, August 27th @ 7:30 a.m. in room 110.*All athletes wanting to play baseball this spring will need to meet in the health roomÂ tomorrow morning at 7:25 with Coach Frazee.*School Pictures will be on September 2nd.*Attention students!Â If you are interested in being a part of planning homecoming, school dances, spirit week, and pep rallies, as well as making Wellington High School a fantastic place to be, consider joining student council. Stuco will have its first meetingÂ this WednesdayÂ atÂ 7:15Â in room 107.Â All WHS students are welcome to attend.Â There will be food and fun, and you will meet new people.Â If you have any questions, please see Ms. Vaughn in room 112.*Students: If you are participating in a fall sport, you must pay your $25.00 Sports Fee before your first game.Guidance office news:College visits during lunch:Tuesday, Sept. 8 – Emporia State University.Friday, Oct 2nd – Kansas State University.Monday, Oct 5th- Wichita State University.Follow us on Twitter. Close Forgot password? Please put in your email: Send me my password! Close message Login This blog post All blog posts Subscribe to this blog post’s comments through… RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Subscribe to this blog’s comments through… RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Follow the discussion Comment (1) Logging you in… Close Login to IntenseDebate Or create an account Username or Email: Password: Forgot login? Cancel Login Close WordPress.com Username or Email: Password: Lost your password? Cancel Login Dashboard | Edit profile | Logout Logged in as Admin Options Disable comments for this page Save Settings Sort by: Date Rating Last Activity Loading comments… You are about to flag this comment as being inappropriate. Please explain why you are flagging this comment in the text box below and submit your report. The blog admin will be notified. Thank you for your input. 0 Vote up Vote down JKB · 259 weeks ago I appreciate you posting these. Report Reply 0 replies · active 259 weeks ago Post a new comment Enter text right here! Comment as a Guest, or login: Login to IntenseDebate Login to WordPress.com Login to Twitter Go back Tweet this comment Connected as (Logout) Email (optional) Not displayed publicly. Name Email Website (optional) Displayed next to your comments. Not displayed publicly. If you have a website, link to it here. Posting anonymously. Tweet this comment Submit Comment Subscribe to None Replies All new comments Comments by IntenseDebate Enter text right here! Reply as a Guest, or login: Login to IntenseDebate Login to WordPress.com Login to Twitter Go back Tweet this comment Connected as (Logout) Email (optional) Not displayed publicly. Name Email Website (optional) Displayed next to your comments. Not displayed publicly. If you have a website, link to it here. Posting anonymously. Tweet this comment Cancel Submit Comment Subscribe to None Replies All new comments
Part of the money will also be used to facilitate team officials and also for organizing the third edition of the FUFA Drum.But Rogers Byamukama, the FUFA Drum chairperson called for calm, arguing that the money will be disbursed before the third edition of FUFA Drum which is yet to be communicated.*****URNShare on: WhatsApp FILE PHOTO; Acholi Province clinched the 2019 FUFA DRUM tournamentKampala, Uganda | THE INDEPENDENT | Acholi province is demanding for 32 million shillings from the Federation for Uganda Football Association- FUFA.The money was one of the prizes that the region won after emerging champions of the second edition of the FUFA Drum in December 2019. Acholi province defeated Bukedi province in a penalty shootout during the finals played at Akii Bua memorial stadium in Lira town.However, Bernard Loum the Acholi province chairperson says that they have not received the money six months after winning the trophy.Loum noted that Acholi province leaders have several times engaged FUFA officials to claim their reward but in vain.He appealed to FUFA to disburse the money which he said would be given to the Acholi province players especially who are in deer need of financial assistance.Recently, the Acholi province players through their captain Denis Okot accused the team leaders of ignoring them at a time when they are in most need of help because of the covid-19 lockdown.
Image Courtesy: Times Now/TOIAdvertisement 6htvmuNBA Finals | Brooklyn Vsluf8Wingsuit rodeo📽Sindre E6nrwqf( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) 1trccpWould you ever consider trying this?😱z9nn6dCan your students do this? 🌚d7Roller skating! Powered by Firework The Pakistan Cricket Board are on the charge from the international media and the cricketing fandom after Pakistani cricket legend Shoaib Akhtar had revealed that his former teammate Danish Kaneria had faced discrimination from his compatriots for his religion. Now, PCB has come up with a statement to defend the allegations against themselves.Advertisement Image Courtesy: Times Now/TOIAt a sports talk show ‘Game on Hai’, Shoaib Akhtar made a striking revelation about his playing career, during which Kaneria was facing bigotry from fellow Pakistani cricketers for being Hindu, did not even have food with him.Kaneria, who is the second Hindu cricketer after Anil Dalpat to represent Pakistan in international cricket, confirmed Akhtar’s statements.Advertisement In an interview with ANI, he said: “The players who didn’t like to talk to me just because I was a Hindu. Soon I will reveal their names. I did not have the courage to speak in this regard, but now I got the courage to speak on this issue when I heard Shoaib’s statement.”The 39 year old was accused of match fixing by the England and Wales Cricket Board in 2010.Advertisement A spokesperson for the PCB, has however dismissed Kaneria and Akhtar’s allegations, and stated that the question should be raised to Kaneria’s teammates, and not the PCB as they had no involvement in this.He told reporters: “Look both Akhtar and Kaneria are retired players they are not contracted to us so they can do or say what they want. It is their opinion. And they are making allegations about behaviour of some players not about the entire Pakistan cricket set-up or board,”“Inzamam-ul-Haq, Rashid Latif, Younis Khan, Muhammad Yousuf, all these guys captained Pakistan when Kaneria was playing. They should respond to what Akhtar and Kaneria are saying. Why should the board get involved?” The spokesperson added.However, Kaneria’s teammates and former Pakistani Test icons Iqbal Qasim and Mohsin Khan have come come forward in moral support.Mohsin said: “A player should only be judged on his cricketing ability and commitments to the team not his religion, colour or creed,” while Qasim added: “If some players have mistreated Kaneria only because of his religion than they must be exposed.” Also read-Shoaib Akhtar makes stunning reveal that Pakistani cricketers didn’t use to even eat with Danish Kaneria because he was Hindu Advertisement
CLICK HERE if you are having trouble viewing these photos on a mobile deviceSteph Curry isn’t just a superstar. He’s also probably pretty good at chasing a ball, rolling over and snuggling on the couch.We’re talking about Steph Curry, the dog, that is, not Steph Curry the famous Golden State Warriors’ point guard.San Francisco Bay Area pet owners are increasingly naming their dogs after the MVP shooter. Rover.com, an online network of pet sitters and dog walkers, says the name is up by 50 …
Nelson Mandela (Image: 46664 Arctic)Dear Mister President,We are greatly honoured to join the millions around the globe congratulating you on taking office as the President of the United States of America. We believe that we are witnessing something truly historic not only in the political annals of your great nation, the United States of America, but of the world.Your election to this high office has inspired people as few other events in recent times have done. Amidst all of the human progress made over the last century the world in which we live remains one of great divisions, conflict, inequality, poverty and injustice. Amongst many around the world a sense of hopelessness had set in as so many problems remain unresolved and seemingly incapable of being resolved. You, Mister President, have brought a new voice of hope that these problems can be addressed and that we can in fact change the world and make of it a better place.We are in some ways reminded today of the excitement and enthusiasm in our own country at the time of our transition to democracy. People, not only in our country but around the world, were inspired to believe that through common human effort injustice can be overcome and that together a better life for all can be achieved.Your Presidency brings hope of new beginnings in the relations between nations, that the challenges we all face, be they economic, the environment, or in combating poverty or the search for peace, will be addressed with a new spirit of openness and accommodation.There is a special excitement on our continent today, Mister President, in the knowledge that you have such strong personal ties with Africa. We share in that excitement and pride.We are aware that the expectations of what your Presidency will achieve are high and that the demands on you will be great. We therefore once more wish you and your family strength and fortitude in the challenging days and years that lie ahead.You will always be in our affection as a young man who dared to dream and to pursue that dream. We wish you well.SincerelySigned N R Mandela
Public-private partnerships South Africa is stepping up its fight against HIV/Aids by allocating a further R3-billion to its national prevention and treatment programme in 2010/11. Source: BuaNews In October 2009, R5.4-billion was set aside to enable more people to get treatment and improve the effectiveness of treatment programmes in public hospitals. 17 February 2010 Gordhan said the government would continue to broaden the use of public-private partnerships in the health sector, in particular to improve the country’s health system. Partnership programmes are on the cards for hospitals like Chris Hani Baragwanath, the new George Mkhari and Polokwane Academic. Presently, about 920 000 people are on anti-retroviral treatment; the Budget provides for this number to be increased to 2.1-million by 2012/13. Total spending on South Africa’s public health system is projected at R105-billion for 2010/11. Public health Delivering his Budget speech in Parliament, Cape Town on Wednesday, Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan said the additional funds would help broaden access to antiretroviral drugs to those infected with TB and women and children with CD4 counts lower than 350. “Alongside longer-term reforms to the financing of health care systems is a prerequisite for the introduction of the National Health Insurance system,” Gordhan said. These include improving public health funding, decentralising financial management to hospitals and local health districts and improving public health management. Provinces are set to increase their spending by 7.2% per year to more than R107-billion by 2012/13. The Department of Health has established an advisory committee on the NHI system. Work is under way to identify measures that will enable a feasible transition to an NHI model over the next five years.
Last week, after an overview of lighting history, we examined incandescent lighting—the lamp technology invented by Thomas Edison. Until the mid-1900s incandescent lighting dominated both commercial and residential lighting applications, indoors and outdoors. That only changed when electric discharge lamps were introduced, offering longer life and producing more light per unit of electricity consumption.While the first practical fluorescent lamp wasn’t introduced until 1938, the origins of fluorescent lighting date back to the turn of the century. In 1901, American Peter Cooper Hewitt patented mercury-vapor lamp. He discovered that by passing electric current through a small amount of mercury gas, an electric arc was produced and light given off. He went on to form a company with George Westinghouse to form the Cooper Hewitt Electric Company to produce the first mercury vapor lamps. I’ll address mercury vapor lamps and other types of “high-intensity discharge” lamps next week.Various researchers, including the German Edmund Germer, worked on improving the light quality from mercury vapor lamps so that it could be used effectively indoors–mercury light has an unpleasant bluish color at the ultraviolet (UV) end of the spectrum–but it was American George Inman and his group or researchers at General Electric that made it work. They found that by coating the inside of the glass tube with phosphor, the UV light would be absorbed and the phosphor would re-radiate a much whiter light. That’s the principle of fluorescent lighting.Fluorescent lamps have electrodes at both ends of a phosphor-coated, sealed glass tube that is filled with a small amount of mercury vapor in an inert gas, usually argon. When current is applied to those electrodes, an electric arc is produced in the mercury gas, generating the light. A ballast modifies the electric current, giving it a boost of charge to start the arc, then reducing the electric current to keep the lamp operating without blowing it out.Early fluorescent lamps used magnetic ballasts that produced an annoying hum and caused flickering. Most of these early fluorescent lamps were straight glass tubes, though GE fairly quickly introduced circular (Circline) and U-shaped lamps. Other manufacturers, including Philips and Sylvania entered the market.More recent advances include the switch to electronic ballasts, improvement in the phosphors, and miniaturization of fluorescent lamps. The switch to electronic ballasts eliminated most of the hum and flicker. Instead of cycling on-and-off 60 times a second (the frequency of AC current), the electronic ballasts cycle at about 10,000 times a second, which is imperceptible to the human eye.While most early fluorescent lamps produced an eerie bluish light that made human skin look cadaverous, newer phosphors introduced in the 1970s dramatically improved the light. Light quality is measured in two ways: the color temperature (in kelvins) and the color rendering index (CRI), both of which are determined by the phosphors. “Cool-white” fluorescent lamps have color temperatures of about 4,000 kelvins or higher, and that light looks distinctly bluish (which has a cool feel to it). Full-spectrum lamps have very high color temperature, often around 7,000 k, and the light is very blue—which most homeowners dislike. Warm-white lamps have color temperatures of about 3,000 or lower; these are more yellow and look and feel more like incandescent light.The color rendering index of a lamp measures how accurately colors are shown off under that light. A CRI of 100 represents color perfectly, like incandescent lamps. In the 1970s most fluorescent lamps had CRIs of 60 or lower, which is why skin color appeared so odd. Most fluorescent lamps today have CRIs of 80 or 85, so show off colors much better.The final advance that I’ll cover here is miniaturization to create compact fluorescent lamps, or CFLs. First introduced in the 1980s by Philips, CFLs are now widely available and becoming more and more common as replacements for incandescent light bulbs. The fluorescent tube is thinner in diameter and either folded or spiraled to concentrate the light. Most of the CFLs homeowners buy have integral ballasts and screw-in mounts just like incandescent light bulbs, so they offer easy replacement. CFLs are also available with separate lamps and ballasts, so that just the lamp can be replaced when it fails.Modern fluorescent lamps produce as many as 100 lumens of light per watt of electricity consumed, compared with about 15 to 20 lumens per watt for incandescent light bulbs. This measure of performance is referred to as “efficacy.” The highest-efficacy linear fluorescent lamps are the thinnest-diameter. (Lamp diameters are measured in eighths of an inch, so a T-12 lamps is an inch-and-a-half in diameter.) T-8 lamps have higher efficacy than T-12 lamps, and T-5 lamps have higher efficacy than T-8s. Most CFLs have efficacies of about 50 or 60 lumens per watt.While CFLs use just a third as much electricity for comparable light output as incandescent light bulbs and last up to ten times as long, they have one big drawback: the mercury. CFLs and straight-tube fluorescent lamps contain a small amount of mercury that creates a disposal problem—the lamps become hazardous waste and, if incinerated, can contribute significantly to air pollution. Breakage can also release potentially hazardous mercury in your house. We will see in a couple weeks how LED lighting offers an alternative to this mercury problem.